1. Early Jordanian Airlines
When Jordan gained independence in 1946, it sought to raise its profile by establishing its own airline, which was established on January 1 of that year and named Arab Airlines. It began serving Beirut and expanded its operations to Baghdad and Cairo in August 1947, with British Overseas Airlines [BOAC] becoming its main investor.
Six years later, it developed into Arab Airlines Jerusalem Ltd., which operated a twin-engined De Havilland Rapids fleet from Jerusalem itself to Beirut and Cairo, but eventually added Aden, Amman, and Baghdad And Jeddah. However, it is not the only carrier in the region.
Air Jordan was founded by HE Ismail Bilbeisi Fasha in 1950. It was initially commissioned by Ambassador from Airspeed, but in 1953 Transocean Airlines [Trans Ocean Airlines] injected cash, an unscheduled carrier operating charter and contract flights to modernize the fleet with a 21-seater Douglas DC-3. These eventually connected Amman to Kabul through Kuwait and Kandahar.
Reflecting that it has now become a competitor's product, Jerusalem Arab Airlines also purchased the aircraft.
They competed for most of the same passenger base, but faced with competition from other Middle Eastern airlines, they chose to merge and form Holy Land Jordan Airlines.
Initially using two Convair CV-240s leased from Trans Ocean, by 1960 it purchased DC-4 to allow longer routes, such as the route from the Amman hub to Rome. Despite promising to provide such a larger four-engine aircraft, the fledgling airline was forced to cease operations after its license was cancelled on September 1 of the following year.
It only takes one month to establish a successor-in this case Jordan Air is jointly owned by private interests [40%], the Jordanian government [25%] and Middle East Air [also 25%]. The company provided it with three leased turboprop Viks V.700 aircraft and crew. Its rule is equally brief.
In order to create the country's leading international airline, King Hussein of Jordan himself was a pilot, and he asked Ali Ghandour, then the vice president of Lebanon International Airlines, to develop a plan to prepare an aircraft Flag Airlines, according to the King himself, serves as "… the bridge to our goodwill ambassadors around the world, and to exchange culture, civilization, trade, technology, friendship and better understanding with the rest of the world."
The company was named after its eldest daughter and was named Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines. Although its structure was not finalized until December 8, 1963, the King made another request that it be airborne within one week.
Accomplishing what was previously considered impossible, Gandul transformed the plan into an aircraft, acquiring two Handley Page Herald 207 and a Douglas DC-7C leased from the Royal Jordanian Air Force, and from then on he started from Amman to Beirut Service. On December 15, Cairo and Kuwait were added in the second week, and a second DC-7 enabled it to serve Jeddah.
Subsequently, the piston engine was converted to a pure jet engine and obtained the Sud-Aviation SE.210-10R Caravelles. The first was delivered on July 29, 1965. This type of engine can provide high-speed, weather-friendly services. To Europe, mainly to Rome and Paris.
However, it once again confronted the enemy while fighting adversity and obstacles. Two years later in June, Israel seized control of Jerusalem, and Israel immediately canceled two of the country's most important resources-tourism and agriculture-which greatly reduced the demand for new carrier services, which resulted in lower aircraft load factors. .
It was during the recent crisis that the Jordanians discovered a third resource, themselves, and only with determination and dedication could Ariya prevail. The government's subsequent acquisitions provided it with the necessary financial support.
After successfully overcoming the latest turmoil, it purchased its first long-range jet, marking its entry into the 1970s and receiving the first of two Boeing 707-320Cs on January 19 of the following year. These Both contributed to the expansion of the route, especially Karachi in the east and Madrid, Casablanca and Copenhagen in the west.
From Karachi to East Africa, a joint service with Pakistan International Airlines [PIA] is also available, albeit briefly.
The 707 is only the first of several Boeing aircraft acquired. For example, in 1972, two 720Bs were purchased for mid-range, low-density segments, and three 727-200 Advanced three jets were purchased for short-to-medium range flights. Equipped with a more flexible and economical fleet, it was able to expand into the region to continental Europe.
Entering the widebody era, Aria received the first of two Boeing 747-200Bs on December 15, 1976, which facilitated the second year of transatlantic flight from Amman via Vienna or Amsterdam from Amman to New York and Houston Service, this is the first Arab airline to do so. It became the first of two types of wide-body surgery.
Unlike the full Boeing fleet, it ordered six Lockheed L-1011-500s. The three-engine type was commissioned between Amman and London Heathrow Airport in October 1981, enabling the carrier to use wide-body aircraft for the first time to serve European destinations and some destinations in the Middle East, such as destinations in the Gulf States.
In addition to its 747 aircraft, it operates the Amman-Vienna / Amsterdam-New York route on a specific date, as well as a newly opened route to Los Angeles with stops in Chicago. JFK's International Airport Department has also been upgraded to direct flight status, with some flights operating through Montreal.
By 1982, the company had operated seven 707-320C, one 720-030B, six 727-200 Advanced, and three 747-200B, two of which were combined and equipped with the main deck cargo loading capacity. There are two L-1011-500.
After eliminating the four-engine narrow airframe, by 1985, the fleet was concentrated on 747 aircraft for long-distance high-density routes, TriStar 500 aircraft for medium-to-long-range, medium-density segments, and 727 for short-range mid-low Density industry.
December 15, 1986 marked several milestones: The Jordanian flag carrier celebrates its 10th and 25th anniversary silver coins in service in the Middle East and the United States, commemorating the occasion with a new company image and name, the latter changed from Alia to In short, Royal Jordanian Airlines wanted to emphasize its identity.
"The new company name," said Ali Ghandour, its chairman and chief executive officer, "represents our traditional consciousness, destiny, achievements and aspirations, and in the process we have been from the beginning Maintaining a "royal" connection has been confirmed, emphasized and recognized.
He concluded: "Last but not least, I want to emphasize that we are not seeking change for ourselves, but to show ourselves and the world that we are invincible in our determination to move forward. Full of confidence, full of hope, and a bright future. "
As of January 1, 1987, the Royal Jordanian route system comprised 41 cities in 34 countries on four continents.
Of these, 3 are long-haul routes to the North Atlantic, including Amman-Vienna-New York, Amman-Amsterdam-New York and Amman-Vienna-Chicago-Los Angeles segments, and 2 are far-haul segments of the Far East, Including Amman-Bangkok and Amman-Kuala Lumpur-Singapore
Two North African routes have been established, from Amman to Tripoli, from Amman to Tunisia and Casablanca, and one destination of the former Soviet Union was Moscow.
European destinations include Amsterdam, Athens, Belgrade, Brussels, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul, Larnaca, London, Madrid, Paris Orly, Rome and Vienna.
Not surprisingly, intensive routes in the Middle East include Abu Dhabi, Amman, Baghdad, Bahrain, Cairo, Damascus, Dharam, Doha, Dubai, Jeddah, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat, Riyadh and Sana'a.
Its only domestic sector is the sector between its hub and Aqaba.
It also operates two joint service agencies-flying to Beirut with Middle Eastern Airlines and east Berlin with Interflug.
During the five-year period from 1979 to 1983, the annual passenger load includes: 1979: 915,000; 1980: 1,100,000; 1981: 1,440,000; 1982: 1,667,273; and 1983: 1,457,334.
In addition to the airline itself, Royal Jordanian has also calculated several airborne and land-based subsidiaries in its portfolio.
The former is Arab Air Cargo. Following Jordanian World Air [it was founded in 1974], it was established in March 1982 as a joint venture between Jordan and Iraq, and launched cargo services on May 1 of the following year, two of which were 707-320C Cargo plane.
It is a member of both the Arab Air Carriers Organization [AACO] and the International Civil Aviation Organization [ICAO], flying to cities such as Amman, Amsterdam, Baghdad, Brussels, Dubai, Larnaca, London and Rome. In 1985, it carried out 612 flights with 4,521 hours of flight time, carried 21,166 tons of cargo, and made a net profit of US $ 16.6 million.
Its second subsidiary, Arab Wing, provides fast on-demand business charter services to remote and inaccessible areas of the Middle East, and is therefore the only such business in the region. It was co-funded by the Government of Oman [one third] and the Royal Government of Jordan [two thirds]. It entered service in May 1975 and operated two six-seater Gates Learjet 35 and one eight-seater Rockwell Sabreliner 75A, respectively from the flight bases of Amman and Muscat.
During the three-year period from 1981 to 1983, it carried 1,636, 2,116 and 1,390 passengers, respectively.
Another branch, the Arab Wing Flying Ambulance [AWFA], provided aeronautical medical services and was first put into operation in 1978.
Sierra Leone Airlines, its third subsidiary, was established in 1982 to replace Sierra Leone Airways, which was established in 1958, and opened in November from Freetown in Sierra Leone. Flights to London are operated by the Royal Jordanian Group [20%], private equity [20%] and the Government of Sierra Leone [60%].
Subsequent expansions led from Freetown-Longi to Abidjan [Ivory Coast], Accra [Ghana], Dakar [Senegal], Lagos [Nigeria], Las Palmas [Canary Islands], Domestic flights based in London, Monrovia [Liberia] and Paris based on Freetown-Hastings connect the airport with Bonthe, Kenema and Yangema ] Connected, one 707-320, one 720 and two Britton Norman Trieslanders. These were later replaced by CASA C-212-200 Aviocar.
In addition to these subsidiaries, Royal Jordanians also own some ground companies. These include Queen Alia International Airport [QAIA], which opened on May 25, 1983, has two interconnected terminals with 12 gates and can handle up to 5 million passengers a year.
The hotel service department can provide 20,000 daily meals for in-flight dining, terminal restaurants, snack bars and employee cafeterias. It manages the four-star, 315-room Alia Gateway Hotel, which opened in 1985. Used by transit passengers and crew. It also oversees duty-free shops at the airport.
Royal Jordanian training centers are divided into technical training colleges and business and management centers.
The Royal Jordanian Aviation Academy is composed of civil aviation and military, and was designated as the Middle East Technical Center by the International Aviation Association in 1985.
Several other issues include Queen Noor Civil Aviation Academy; Arab Aviation Services, an engineering consulting department, assisted in the design and construction of the airport between 1979 and 1983; Royal Jordanian Folklore Group; Arab Art Gallery; and Royal trip.
4. RJ today
Fleet modernization marks the last decade of the Royal Jordanian history of the 20th century, marking a shift from long-standing Boeing and Lockheed products to Airbus industrial aircraft, the first of which is the A-310-300.
It is powered by two high-bypass turbofan engines and is driven by a two-person cockpit crew. It replaced the 727 on demand routes that exceeded its capacity or was too thin for the L-1011, but provided Dual-channel wide-body comfort. Because of its ranging capabilities, it even operates the Jordan-US transatlantic route even in a period of reduced demand.
However, these aircraft were mainly flown by a second Airbus fleet, the four-engine A-340-200, which eventually replaced the 747 and TriStars.
In the regional, Middle Eastern, North African and European markets, the Bonafide 727 alternative becomes the twin-engine, narrow-body A-319, A-320 and A-321 series, while short-range and regional routes are another type of double-cabin configuration for Embraer The industrial companies E-175 and E-195 can seat 72 and 100 passengers, respectively. Both are perfect for 45 minutes between the capital and the Red Sea resort of Aqaba.
Royal Jordanian was accepted as a member of the Oneworld Alliance in 2007 and continues to upgrade its long-range fleet, buying 233,000 kilograms of A-330-200 aircraft between 2010 and 2011, which can be configured for 24 With a crown and 259 economy classes, and a 227,930 kg 787-8 between August and November 2014, the Dreamliner can accommodate 24 and 247 passengers, respectively. Since the A-310 is no longer economical and has four engines, it has been intermittently converted to a cargo plane with the main cargo door and the A-340 opened upwards. Fuel consumption, all removed from service.
As Royal Jordanian celebrated its fiftieth anniversary on December 15, 2012, it introduced the 50th Anniversary coating for one of its aircraft and redesigned the airline ’s flight to Beirut. The first regular route.
It overcomes obstacles and regional conflicts and makes an important contribution to the country's culture and economy. Natural resources are scarce, its agriculture and tourism were once locked in the occupied West Bank, it was once an air bridge to the rest of the world, and it became one of the country's main sources of income. Its continued existence is crucial. As a result, it has largely become the basis on which the country itself depends.
Reviewing the carrier ’s history at the Golden Jubilee celebrations held at Queen Alia International Airport in December 2012, Nasser Lozi, Chairman of the Board of Directors, stated: "King Hussein launched Aria under Ma, Because RJ was named December 15, 1963, he wanted it to become the national aircraft carrier of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, designed to contribute to Jordan's progress, promote interaction with other cultures, and build relationships with other countries. .. [today], we are proud to be the national carrier connecting Jordan and the Levant to the world. "
Looking back at its growth, with an annual increase in passenger numbers from 87,000 in 1964 to 3.3 million in 2012, President and CEO Amer Hadidi said, "Royal Jordan Airways has been a pioneer in establishing a solid foundation for the air transport industry. region."
By the end of 2014, three E-175s, five E-195s, four A-319-100s, six A-320-200s, two A-321-200s, three A-330-200s, and five The 787-8, Royal Jordanian serves 54 destinations on four continents and is well configured to continue the mission established by its founder.